Ping® – Arts, Entertainment, Media and Advertising Law News – Protecting Furniture Design Keeps Getting Harder

Herman Miller, Inc. – a leading furniture brand and purveyor of the iconic Eames Chair Design – suffered a loss at US Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) in its bid to protect as “trade dress” the design of the chair. The case involves a well-known chair design dating from the 1940’s, by designers Ray and Charles Eames. The chair ultimately was recognized by Time Magazine as the Best Design of the 20th Century, and now is in the design collections of numerous museums. Herman Miller sought registration of most of the chair’s configuration as a mark, depicted in more than one view, for “furniture, namely, chairs.”

The court weighed each of the Morton-Norwich factors, concluding that the proposed three-dimensional product configuration as a whole indicates that it is functional. The court found that patent evidence, the advertisements touting utilitarian advantages of the design, and the limited availability of alternative designs that would work equally well, proved functionality.

Key Take Aways:

  1. Beware of patent evidence in trade dress protection due to risk that distinctive design elements be treated as de jure functional. In general, examining attorneys no longer make this distinction in Office actions that refuse registration based on functionality. De facto functionality is not a ground for refusal. In re Ennco Display Sys. Inc., 56 USPQ2d 1279, 1282 (TTAB 2000); In re Parkway Mach. Corp., 52 USPQ2d 1628, 1631 n.4 (TTAB 1999).
  2. Ensure that advertising promotes the nonfunctional design elements, such “look for” advertising. Examples include evidence, including SEO data, that connected the applicant’s efforts to promote the applied-for mark as a trademark and consumers’ ability to conceive of the applied-for mark as such, and examples of unsolicited media coverage

Social Media Advertising Tools And User Consent: What Are The Requirements?

Perhaps you’ve seen them, those television and radio ads that talk about the “creepy” nature of some adverting on the Internet that follows consumers across their social media. According to Pew Research, most Americans believe their online activities are being tracked and monitored. 

The fact is, most companies can and do share data with social media platforms to ensure targeted advertising reaches receptive audiences. As more tools become available and the variety of data sources grows globally, platforms and advertisers are re-examining their rights and obligations when it comes to something as simple as matching customers’ email addresses with their Facebook accounts. 

Facebook’s Customer List Custom Audiences (“Custom Audiences”) tool is one such tool that has the potential to expand an advertiser’s liability for unauthorized use of customer data. For EU customers, a German Data Protection Authority ruling requires a individual’s explicit consent to such sharing.

The Facebook Custom Audiences tool enables advertisers to create targeted advertisements to Facebook users by combining Facebook data with the advertiser’s data such as email addresses and phone numbers. To use marketing tool the advertiser must comply with the consent and privacy expectations of individuals who have provided email addresses.

Consent to Use Email Addresses

While the use and disclosure of email addresses is regulated in some countries, the U.S. does not have a uniform data privacy protection scheme. U.S. privacy rights are protected through a patchwork of laws addressed to specific types of harm, such as unauthorized access and disclosure of financial (Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), 15 U.S.C. § 1681) or healthcare-related (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) 42 U.S.C. § 1320d–2) data. While the CAN SPAM Act (15. U.S.C. § 7701 et seq.) specifically regulates email, the Act excludes communications based on a previously existing relationship. 

Importantly, for most purposes, permission of the e-mail recipient is not required. However, messages MUST contain a mechanism to request to opt-out of future email messages. If email addresses are acquired from third-party sources, such as marketing databases or social media, ensure users are given reasonable notice and choice about the use of such data.

The Federal Trade Commission endorses a market-style model of ensuring the fair use of information that allows individuals to participate in decisions on the disclosure and use of their personal information. As articulated by the FTC, the elements of this approach are notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Contractual Requirements of Facebook Custom Audiences 

In order to use the Custom Audiences tool, the advertiser must agree to additional terms and conditions. Facebook’s Custom Audiences terms require that the advertiser have both “all necessary rights and permissions” as well as a lawful basis to disclose and use the email addresses “in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and industry guidelines.” 

Recommendations

Review your Privacy Policy, Website Terms & Conditions, and membership/subscription applications to confirm the existence of a clear mechanism to opt-out of future email messages. If email addresses are acquired from third-party sources, such as marketing databases or social media, review data gathering practices, review scope of permissions granted to the sources of data and ensure users are given reasonable notice and choice about the use of such data.

What Is Cyberlaw?

On November 13, I had the honor of providing a lecture on Cyberlaw to students at the Boston College Law School. Virtually, of course. I had been asked to talk about trends in Cyberlaw with a specific focus on issues related to intellectual property.

So what is Cyberlaw? Simply put, it is the “Rules of the Road” for the “information superhighway.” Cyber law is the law that governs rights, obligations and remedies of people and transactions conducted over global computer networks.

In a year that has seen hyperbolic growth in technology, commerce, and communications, this topic couldn’t be more timely. In order to frame the discussion, the scope featured a discussion of the Three Cs of Cyberlaw: Connections, Content and Commerce.

The first part of the discussion centered around Content, or issues related to Copyright, such as Free Speech/First Amendment CDA Sec. 230, Creative Works, Media and Entertainment, UGC and the DMCA.

The Second part of the discussion centered around Commerce or issues related to Trademarks, marketing and branding, such as: Marketing/Advertising, Domain NamesCyberpiracy prevention, Keyword Advertising and Social Advertising.

The third and final part of the discussion focused on Connections and Communications and issues related to Personal Data, Stalking, Harassment, Surveillance and Sovereignty, issues around Social Media Freedom of Speech v. Freedom of Reach, and the latest developments around Political speech online.

The lecture closed with a Q&A focused primarily on Navigating Law School and Professional Practice.

COVID-19 is changing consumer behavior in important and probably permanent ways.

COVID-19 is changing consumer behavior in important and probably permanent ways. This is why marketers should take notice.

Sparked by the coronavirus pandemic, consumer and business e-commerce transactions accelerated the ongoing shift toward online commerce. This enables even more marketing opportunities that create real time connections with customers. From pink ribbons to Product Red, social feeds are full of calls to support those in need. In this way, online cause marketing can drive “consumption philanthropy” replacing mindless buying with virtuous action. Tying cause-worthy buying with the latest ecommerce boom creates new opportunities for marketers.

However, before turning your blog, social media accounts, or website into a funnel to raise money for First Responders, it is important to understand that all states have laws that govern charitable solicitations. Running promotions and undertaking solicitations for charities means that unless the business itself is set up as a tax exempt charitable entity, these activities are considered “Commercial co-ventures.” Generally this is a person (or business) who, for profit, is primarily engaged in commerce other than in connection with soliciting for charities and who conducts a charitable sales promotion.

In Illinois, Sec.3. (b) of the Solicitation for Charity Act provides the following persons shall not be required to register with the Attorney General: 3. “Persons requesting any contributions for the … benefit of any individual, specified by name at the time of the solicitation, if the contributions collected are turned over to the named beneficiary, first deducting reasonable expenses for costs of banquets, or social gatherings, if any, provided all fund raising functions are carried on by persons who are unpaid, directly or indirectly, for such services.” Emphasis mine.

Even if you are not raising money for a good cause, consider using disclaimer s to let your audience know product and company names are trademarks of the respective owners and does not imply any affiliation with or endorsement by them.

Venture Capital Weekly Headlines – Ping®

Venture CapitalWeekly update ⋅

September 14, 2021

Chapel Hill’s TrueBridge Capital closes $170M fund, will focus investments in other VC firms …

CHAPEL HILL – Venture capital firm TrueBridge Capital Partners has closed its first venture capital fund-of-funds that will focus on seed ventures.

Russian Telecom Operator MTS Launches $100 Million Venture Fund– Forbes

The MTS AI Intema fund’s launch comes amid a surge of investment in AI-focused startups with over $55 billion committed to the sector in 2020 alone.


Raising venture capital for the first time? Not sure where to start? – Fast Company

Dear Founder,. Congrats on getting to this point. We fund a lot early-stage companies and first-time founders, so …

Volkswagen to set up venture capitalfund in decarbonization push | ReutersReuters(Reuters) – Volkswagen AG said on Tuesday it planned to set up a venture capital fund, which would initially invest 300 million euros ($355.14 million)

Navigating The Venture Capital Space As A Family Office – ForbesForbes

Champ Suthipongchai is a General Partner at Creative Ventures, a method-driven venture capital firm based in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Is it so bad to take money from Chinese venture funds? | TechCrunchTechCrunch

Denis Kalinin works at venture fund Runa Capital as Asia Business development manager, devoted to connecting the Western and Asian VC worlds.

EU Backs Icelandic Venture Capital Fund Focused on Women in Tech – Bloomberg

Iceland’s female-led venture capital firm Crowberry Capital has launched a $90 million fund to invest in technology startups in the Nordics

Venture Fund
 Economics: Why (Fund) Size Matters in Venture Capital – LinkedIn
LinkedInContinuing on “Demystifying Venture Capital” where we break down the inner-workings of venture capital, let’s discuss- ‘Venture Fund Economics

Ping® – Arts, Entertainment, Media & Advertising Law News – “Five Rs” To Remember

“Five Rs” To Remember When Letting Employees Go

It is inevitable in almost every business. You will need to let an employee go. Whether it’s a seasoned designer coming with plug-and-play experience or a fresh face just out of design school, sometimes it just doesn’t work out. Recently, several of my designer clients have had to fire an employee due to the employee’s misconduct. This could be anything from soliciting and directing company clients and prospects, to doing personal consulting work on the company’s dime, to taking property and information. Regardless of the reason, here are five “R”s to keep in mind.

1. Review the contract.

2. Reconcile and pay.

3. Request return of property.

4. Reiterate respectfulness. 

5. Reserve rights.

With those ideas in mind, let’s consider each one. A little more.

1. Review the contract/offer letter. This is always the first step and will provide guidance on termination rights, procedures and remedies, if any.

2. Reconcile and pay what’s owed. See number 1. Ensure that except for payment of contractual and statutory amounts, no other salary, commissions, overtime, bonuses, vacation pay, sick pay, severance pay, additional severance pay or other payments or benefits whatsoever will be paid.

3. Request return of property and information, in whatever form. Request all property any and all property or documents the employee created or received in the course of employment, including, but not limited to e-mails, passwords, documents and other electronic information, hardware such as laptop computers and cellular telephones, calculators, smartphones and other electronic equipment (mobile phone, tablet, etc.), software, keys, company credit cards, calling cards, parking transponder, information technology equipment, client lists, files and other confidential and proprietary documents, in any media or format, including electronic files.

4. Reiterate a professional’s obligation to remain respectful. Specific admonition of non-disparagement such as “refrain from saying, making, writing or causing to be made or written, disparaging or harmful comments about us, our employees and/or our clients.”

5. Reserve rights. Close your termination notice by expressly reserving legal and equitable rights and remedies.

Please note that this is not legal advice and you should consult your own lawyer regarding your rights and obligations in the context of terminating your employee’s employment.

Ping® – Arts, Entertainment, Media & Advertising Law News

U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Committee: The Gold Standard for Trademark Protection. By Kelli Ovies August 3, 2021

The Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act is a United States law (codified at 36 U.S.C. Sec. 220501 et seq. of the United States Code) that charters and grants monopoly status to the United States Olympic Committee, and specifies requirements for its member national governing bodies for individual sports.

Minefield or Mint? Endorsement deals come thick and fast for college athletes, as NCAA floodgates open. BY Khristopher J. Brooks July 29, 2021 MONEYWATCH

The NCAA must now let student athletes profit from their own images, setting up enforcement headaches. The NCAA bans payment to induce athletes to pick a school or to reward specific performances.

The NCAA faces the hurdle of drawing a line between legitimate endorsement deals and those of prohibited compensation arrangements designed to look legitimate. These complex rights deals can hinge on several variables, and the value of an athlete’s image may be tied to athletic success that’s not supposed to be directly rewarded.

Ping® August 2021 – Arts, Entertainment, Media & Advertising Law News

Tell Us How We’re Doing

The motivation to create Ping® stems from my experiences running the Entrepreneurial & Start-up Ventures Committee, and the Media, Arts & Entertainment Committee of the Chicago Bar Association, participation in Illinois State Bar Association committees, and public speaking engagements on the subjects of intellectual property, information technology, privacy, security and entertainment law. 


Every forum meeting or presentation ends with in-depth questions from the audience. I publish Ping® to share knowledge and educate creative professionals and entrepreneurs to be better business owners and managers.
Is the Ping® Newsletter useful or informative for you? Let us know in the comments section, below.

AM Days/AFFILIATE SUMMIT WEST 21

TRAFFICKING IN TRUST: HOW TO ENHANCE AFFILAITE ENGAGEMENT

Attendees will learn best practices, strategies, and tactics from a seasoned legal professional who works with businesses and regulators at the federal and state levels.  We will break down the how, when, where, and what of disclosers and disclaimers as well as recent developments in privacy law such as the California “Do Not Sell” requirements. If you are in a decision-making role in your organization – or just want to be among those in the know on how to restore trust – this is a must-attend event. 

Learn more and register here https://www.affiliatesummit.com/west/am-days

Is It Necessary To Register A Design Copyright?

A client was asking “is it necessary to fill out all the paperwork to register a design even though the law says you already own it?”

It’s a good question. Technically, under the Copyright Act as amended in 1976, the author (creator) of a work owns the copyright. The 1976 Act states that copyright protection extends to original works that are fixed in a tangible medium of expression. This wording broadens the scope of federal statutory copyright protection from the previous “publication” standard to a “fixation” standard. No further action is necessary. Under previous versions of the law, there were publication requirements to perfect ownership.

Under section 102 of the Act, copyright protection extends to “original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.”

Until the ’76 statutory revision to U.S. copyright law the Copyright Act of 1909 governed, under which federal copyright protection attached only when those works were 1) published and 2) had a notice of copyright affixed. In addition, state copyright law governed protection for unpublished works creating inconsistencies.

Despite the successful streamlining and efficiency of rights creation and enforcement, some challenges and inconsistencies remained. Most noticeably, there had been spit in the federal courts. Some courts required the certificate to litigate, some courts only required proof that an application had been filed.

Last year, the US Supreme Court ruled that in order for a copyright owner to enforce its rights against infringers, the copyright owner must have a registration certificate for the works that are being infringed.

In Fourth Estate Public Benefit Corp. v. Wall-Street.com, LLC, 586 U.S. ___ (2019) (PDF here) decided March 4, 2019, the US Supreme Court resolved this split among courts around the country by holding that the mere filing of a copyright application is not sufficient to allow a copyright owner to file suit – actual approval of a copyright application by the United States Copyright Office is required before suit can be filed. Approval comes only in the form of a Registration Certificate.

Returning to the client’s question, while it is true that the Copyright Act says  one owns the copyright in a work when it is fixed, it is no longer true that one can ignore the registration requirements. Yes, one does not have to do anything formal to own a copyright in a work one creates. However, one cannot enforce those rights without the registration certificate in hand. For all practical purposes, there is no reason not to register the copyright in any design, pattern or other distinctive element you create. The fees are relatively low ($65.00) and completing/filing the form can be done electronically.

A word to the wise, like all areas of Intellectual Property, there are nuances that are easily overlooked by the uninitiated. You should always consult with an experienced copyright lawyer when evaluating any individual situation.