Ping® – Arts, Entertainment, Media and Advertising Law News – Protecting Furniture Design Keeps Getting Harder

Herman Miller, Inc. – a leading furniture brand and purveyor of the iconic Eames Chair Design – suffered a loss at US Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) in its bid to protect as “trade dress” the design of the chair. The case involves a well-known chair design dating from the 1940’s, by designers Ray and Charles Eames. The chair ultimately was recognized by Time Magazine as the Best Design of the 20th Century, and now is in the design collections of numerous museums. Herman Miller sought registration of most of the chair’s configuration as a mark, depicted in more than one view, for “furniture, namely, chairs.”

The court weighed each of the Morton-Norwich factors, concluding that the proposed three-dimensional product configuration as a whole indicates that it is functional. The court found that patent evidence, the advertisements touting utilitarian advantages of the design, and the limited availability of alternative designs that would work equally well, proved functionality.

Key Take Aways:

  1. Beware of patent evidence in trade dress protection due to risk that distinctive design elements be treated as de jure functional. In general, examining attorneys no longer make this distinction in Office actions that refuse registration based on functionality. De facto functionality is not a ground for refusal. In re Ennco Display Sys. Inc., 56 USPQ2d 1279, 1282 (TTAB 2000); In re Parkway Mach. Corp., 52 USPQ2d 1628, 1631 n.4 (TTAB 1999).
  2. Ensure that advertising promotes the nonfunctional design elements, such “look for” advertising. Examples include evidence, including SEO data, that connected the applicant’s efforts to promote the applied-for mark as a trademark and consumers’ ability to conceive of the applied-for mark as such, and examples of unsolicited media coverage

Ping® – Arts, Entertainment, Media & Advertising Law News – “Five Rs” To Remember

“Five Rs” To Remember When Letting Employees Go

It is inevitable in almost every business. You will need to let an employee go. Whether it’s a seasoned designer coming with plug-and-play experience or a fresh face just out of design school, sometimes it just doesn’t work out. Recently, several of my designer clients have had to fire an employee due to the employee’s misconduct. This could be anything from soliciting and directing company clients and prospects, to doing personal consulting work on the company’s dime, to taking property and information. Regardless of the reason, here are five “R”s to keep in mind.

1. Review the contract.

2. Reconcile and pay.

3. Request return of property.

4. Reiterate respectfulness. 

5. Reserve rights.

With those ideas in mind, let’s consider each one. A little more.

1. Review the contract/offer letter. This is always the first step and will provide guidance on termination rights, procedures and remedies, if any.

2. Reconcile and pay what’s owed. See number 1. Ensure that except for payment of contractual and statutory amounts, no other salary, commissions, overtime, bonuses, vacation pay, sick pay, severance pay, additional severance pay or other payments or benefits whatsoever will be paid.

3. Request return of property and information, in whatever form. Request all property any and all property or documents the employee created or received in the course of employment, including, but not limited to e-mails, passwords, documents and other electronic information, hardware such as laptop computers and cellular telephones, calculators, smartphones and other electronic equipment (mobile phone, tablet, etc.), software, keys, company credit cards, calling cards, parking transponder, information technology equipment, client lists, files and other confidential and proprietary documents, in any media or format, including electronic files.

4. Reiterate a professional’s obligation to remain respectful. Specific admonition of non-disparagement such as “refrain from saying, making, writing or causing to be made or written, disparaging or harmful comments about us, our employees and/or our clients.”

5. Reserve rights. Close your termination notice by expressly reserving legal and equitable rights and remedies.

Please note that this is not legal advice and you should consult your own lawyer regarding your rights and obligations in the context of terminating your employee’s employment.

COVID-19 is changing consumer behavior in important and probably permanent ways.

COVID-19 is changing consumer behavior in important and probably permanent ways. This is why marketers should take notice.

Sparked by the coronavirus pandemic, consumer and business e-commerce transactions accelerated the ongoing shift toward online commerce. This enables even more marketing opportunities that create real time connections with customers. From pink ribbons to Product Red, social feeds are full of calls to support those in need. In this way, online cause marketing can drive “consumption philanthropy” replacing mindless buying with virtuous action. Tying cause-worthy buying with the latest ecommerce boom creates new opportunities for marketers.

However, before turning your blog, social media accounts, or website into a funnel to raise money for First Responders, it is important to understand that all states have laws that govern charitable solicitations. Running promotions and undertaking solicitations for charities means that unless the business itself is set up as a tax exempt charitable entity, these activities are considered “Commercial co-ventures.” Generally this is a person (or business) who, for profit, is primarily engaged in commerce other than in connection with soliciting for charities and who conducts a charitable sales promotion.

In Illinois, Sec.3. (b) of the Solicitation for Charity Act provides the following persons shall not be required to register with the Attorney General: 3. “Persons requesting any contributions for the … benefit of any individual, specified by name at the time of the solicitation, if the contributions collected are turned over to the named beneficiary, first deducting reasonable expenses for costs of banquets, or social gatherings, if any, provided all fund raising functions are carried on by persons who are unpaid, directly or indirectly, for such services.” Emphasis mine.

Even if you are not raising money for a good cause, consider using disclaimer s to let your audience know product and company names are trademarks of the respective owners and does not imply any affiliation with or endorsement by them.

Copyright Must Read: SKIDMORE V. LED ZEPPELIN reversed, remanded for prejudicially erroneous Jury Instructions.

Hat tip to Joshua L. Simmons, Copyright Division Council Liaison from KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP in New York for keeping the #Copyright Bar up to date on important developments.

From this week’s news letter is the decision in Skidmore v. Led Zeppelin involving a claim by Michael Skidmore, a Trustee, alleging Led Zeppelin copied key portions of its timeless hit “Stairway to Heaven” from the song “Taurus.” At trial, the jury found in favor of the Defendants. Skidmore appealed on the grounds of alleged trial errors. He also disputed the district court’s determination that the scope of the copyright for unpublished works under the Copyright Act of 1909 (“1909 Act”) is defined by the deposit copy.

The appellate court made several key holdings. First, the failure to instruct the jury that the “selection and arrangement of unprotectable musical elements are protectable” was prejudicial error.  Second, a jury instruction incorrectly stated that copyright does not protect “chromatic scales, arpeggios or short sequences of three notes.” Third, a jury instruction on originality  incorrectly omitted a statement that “any elements from prior works or the public domain are not considered original parts and not protected by copyright.” “In copyright law, the ‘original’ part of a work need not be new or novel.”  Lastly, the district court must revisit the issue whether as a matter of law, that Skidmore’s “evidence as to proof of access is insufficient to trigger the inverse ratio rule.”

For more more information:

SKIDMORE V. LED ZEPPELIN
No. 16-56057, 16-56287, 2018 WL 4654729 (9th Cir. Sep. 28, 2018)

Technology, Innovation and the Law

In today’s world, business is no longer about simply having an online presence. Digital business is transactional and social across platforms and networks across thew globe. The previous model of one-to-one transactional business relationships has evolved to one that is reciprocal, collaborative and highly interactive.

This new level of engagement is not without risks. As businesses expand into new online areas for marketing and commerce, businesses should be aware of a myriad of laws and risk areas implicated when one conducts business online. Business lawyers must be familiar with Technology Law.

There are a wide variety of services around the most common types of content and businesses need legal disclaimers, protection of intellectual property rights and other ways to limit liability.

Generally, the key areas and issues are:

Trade & Commerce Issues

  • Advertising & Promotions Laws (these vary by state)
  • Affiliate Marketing Agreements/Relationships
  • Federal Regulatory Guidelines
  • Industry Regulations & Guidelines
  • CAN-SPAM Act
  • Online Contracts/Terms of Use (Click-Wrap/Browse-Wrap Agreements)
  • Disclaimers
  • Limits of Liability
  • Sales & Taxation/Clarifying Nexus Confusion
  • Choice of Law/Forum
  • Insurance Law
  • Website Representations and Warranties

Intellectual Property Issues

  • Copyright & Digital Millennium Copyright Act
  • Defamation/Free Speech
  • Trademark Law
  • Unfair Internet Business Practices Such as Domain Name Hijacking & Cybersquatting
  • Anti-cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act
  • Linking/Scraping/Crawling
  • Patent Law
  • Licensing
  • Trade Secrets

Privacy & Security Issues

  • Credit Cards / Transaction Processing
  • E-Payment and Credit Card Security/Privacy
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
  • Data Breach Notification Laws
  • Data Privacy Laws

Human Resources & Employment Issues

  • BYOD & Computer Usage Guidelines for Employees
  • Employment and Labor Laws
  • Social Media Guidelines for Employees

We look forward to the opportunity to discuss any questions you may have regarding the range of business, technology and intellectual property services we offer. Our law office is based in Chicago, Illinois. Please feel free to call us at (866) 734-2568 should you have any questions.

Best Practices EU/US Privacy Shield

In case you missed it, Ken Dort at Drinker Biddle held a discussion covering high points of the EU/US Privacy Shield. Talking points covered:

1. Application Overview
2. Certification Issues
3. Privacy Shield Principles and Supplemental Principles
4. Implementation Timelines (Expected)
5. Best Practices Going Forward Pending Implementation

The draft EU-U.S. Privacy Shield “adequacy decision” includes the Privacy Shield Principles companies must follow. Suggested Best Practices for compliance with EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Principles include: evaluating disclosures about data collection and use to determine whether they are sufficiently clear and evident to consumers, and 2) giving strong consideration for implementation of a formal opt-in mechanism. European government trade regulators are concerned about whether consumers are being sufficiently informed about the nature and scale of data collection.

Ken graciously provided this great list of resources for the discussion:

* Full text of the Privacy Shield can be found here.

* European Commission draft adequacy decision can be found here.

* Department of Commerce Fact Sheet can be found here.

* European Commission Fact Sheet can be found here.

* European Commission FAQs can be found here.

* Statement from U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker on release of the Privacy Shield text can be found here.

* European Commission statement on the Privacy Shield text can be found here.

Article 29 Working Party statement on the Privacy Shield can be found here.

As part of Adler Law Group’s Privacy & Information Security Practice, we continue to follow the developments in this area. We can help you review, enhance and adopt standardized contracts and implement methodologies for approaching these challenges by setting objectives, determining scope, allocating resources, and developing agreements that will efficiently and effective manage risks.

Adler Quoted in BNA’s Electronic Commerce & Law Report

A recent article by Alexis Kramer, Legal Editor for Bloomberg BNA’s Electronic Commerce & Law Report, examines the nature of social media platform messenger applications and the move into e-commerce. This shift raises the implications for policing counterfeit goods and enforcement of online purchases.

The article entitled “E-Commerce May Come to Messaging Apps; Watch for Counterfeits and Contract Issues” highlights that “[b]uying and selling goods through messenger apps” … “is definitely the future of mobile.”

David M. Adler was interviewed for the article for insight around ecommerce legal issues, which include intellectual property and contractual issues, that arise when consumers transact business through messenger apps. Many of these issues were identified in his article Pinterest “Buyable Pins” And Ecommerce Liability.

The legal risks and issues vary widely depending on industry and product/service mix and encompass many interrelated areas of the law. Specifically, Adler inditified five main areas of concern for ecommerce, especially on mobile devices and/or through messenger apps:

  1. Trade & Commerce Issues (Brand protections)
  2. Online Agreements (limitations of liability)
  3. Intellectual Property Issues (content ownership and use)
  4. Privacy & Security (data gathering, usage, storage & sharing)
  5. Human Resources & Employment Issues (reputation and social media use)

Facebook, WeChat, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and other social networks already allow users to send payments to one another through private messages. New tools such as the Pinterest “Buy Now” pin, and Twitter’s direct messages, facilitate commercial transactions with consumers.

As the article notes “enabling retail transactions via chat” opens the door for more counterfeit goods, difficulty monitoring the sales channel, increasing difficultly of enforcing online purchase terms, and lack of visual space to properly notify customers of the terms and conditions.

‘‘All the issues you would have when conducting transactions over the Internet are magnified when you’re using a messenger app,’’ David Adler, principal of Adler Law Group in Chicago, said.

Tracking Tech Case Provides Guidance on Customer Opt Outs

From healthcare apps, to mobile devices, to utilities, services are collecting and aggregating customer data across many different types of connected devices. Many mobile apps and services rely on a consumer’s location information. As more mobile apps connect to the Internet to send and receive location data, the FTC, legislators, privacy advocates, and others have identified location information as a particularly sensitive category of data. A recent study conducted by Carnegie Mellon University contained shocking revelations about the frequency with which location information is gathered and transmitted to companies through their mobile apps. At the same time, the recent settlement with in-store retail customer tracking provider Nomi highlights the FTC’s increased scrutiny of data gathering practices and disclosures of mobile application developers.

It is no secret that retailers could derive significant business intelligence from the real-time moments through stores. This is one of the areas around which companies innovate around customers’ private information. For example, Nomi Technologies, a company whose technology allows retailers to track consumers’ movements through their stores, made headlines when it agreed to settle Federal Trade Commission charges that it misled consumers about opting out of their tracking services. This is not why you want to have your company’s innovations in the news.

Business counsel both inside and outside of companies developing applications that leverage mobile geolocation data of consumers and employees should be aware of the many issues that are developing around this area such as: How is geolocation information gathered and how does data flow from device, to app to, third party? How is it shared and used in mobile advertising? When is consent required and how should stakeholders obtain such consent?

 

Five Best Ways to Protect Your Ideas

Idea

When I first meet a client, I am often asked “How can I protect my ideas?” While it may seem like a simple question, getting the answer right is often tricky. That’s because one can’t actually own an idea, in and of itself. Sounds confusing, I know. The five best ways to protect your ideas are 1) Identify, 2) Organize, 3) Register (or restrict), 4) Monitor, and 5) Enforce. This articles focuses on how to identify the best ways to protect your ideas.

Regardless of industry, Ideas are the keys to any successful business. While one cannot “own” an idea, one can protect one’s Intellectual Property rights that relate to the embodiment or manifestation of that idea. For example, Copyright, Patent, Trademark, Trade Secret and Publicity Rights are all forms of Intellectual Property rights that grant exclusive rights to the owner, both artistic and commercial.

Copyright protects works of creative artistic expression such as books, movies, audio-visual music, paintings, photographs, and importantly, software. Copyright protection requires that a work be “fixed” in tangible format (this includes electronic format) and gives the owner (called the “author”) of such works the exclusive rights to reproduce, distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, and modify a work for a certain period of time.

Patents (utility and design), Trademarks and Trade Secrets protect creative commercial expression sometimes known as “industrial properties,” as they are typically created and used for industrial or commercial purposes.

A Patent protects the invention or discovery of “any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” A Patent gives the inventor “the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling” the invention in the United States or “importing” the invention into the United States for a period of time.

A Trademark is any word, name, symbol, or device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used, in commerce to identify and distinguish the goods of one manufacturer or seller from others, and to indicate the source of the goods. In short, a trademark is a brand name or logo that is a distinctive sign which is used to prevent confusion among products in the marketplace. A Trademark enjoys protection indefinitely, as long as it is being used.

An industrial design right protects the form of appearance, style or design of an industrial object from infringement.

A Trade Secret is an item of non-public information concerning the commercial practices or proprietary knowledge of a business. Public disclosure of trade secrets may sometimes be illegal. A Trade secret enjoys protection indefinitely, as long as it is being kept secret.

Some rights are “statutory” in that they exist because they are granted by the Constitution of the United States, e.g. Copyright and Patent. Other rights arise from “use,” e.g. Trademark and Trade Secret rights. Some arise under State law, e.g., Rights of Publicity. Not all types of intellectual property require registration in order to obtain, maintain or enforce one’s rights. However, registration is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED if available, is required in certain circumstances and, even when not required, registration often confers several benefits that enable enforcement, reduce the risk and costs of enforcement, and provide additional incentives and remedies for enforcement.

The term “Intellectual Property” denotes the specific legal rights described above, and not the intellectual work, concept or idea itself. Oftentimes, the largest value of a businesses can be traced to its intangible assets. Knowing how to identify intangible assets and understanding which Intellectual Property rights apply to these assets is critical to the ability to protect and commercialize one’s ideas. Therefore, great care should be given to maintaining and enhancing their power and value. Value can be increased through a carefully planned and executed strategy. Innovative companies that successfully leverage their Intellectual Property rights will stand to benefit most from the opportunities presented by the current economic marketplace and demand for innovation.

 

Focus | Vision | Perspective | Passion

Executives face a confusing and dynamic set of challenges ensuring their business remains legally compliant. Yet few can afford the highly-qualified and versatile legal staff needed to deal with today’s complex legal & regulatory environment.

Adler Law Group was created to provide clients with a competitive advantage by enabling them to leverage their intangible assets and creative content in a way that drives innovation and increases the overall value of the business.

For a FREE, no-obligation 1 hour consultation to learn the best ways to identify, protect and leverage your ideas, please call: (866) 734-2568, click: http://www.adler-law.com, or write: David @ adler-law.com.

Adler Law Group – Providing innovative legal counsel that elevates aspirations to achievements.™

Why Every Trademark Owner Should Care About B&B Hardware

Does a Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) decision that there is a likelihood of confusion between two trademarks prevent federal district court trademark litigation?

The purpose of a trademark is two-fold: to identify the owner or “source” of goods and services, and to prevent consumer confusion in the marketplace. Therefore, the test for trademark infringement under the Trademark Act of 1946 (Lanham Act), is whether use of a trademark is “likely to cause confusion” with an existing, registered mark. A person generally may neither use nor register a mark that would be “likely to cause confusion” with an existing trademark. If a person uses a mark that one believes is likely to cause confusion, the owner of the registered mark may sue in federal court for trademark infringement. 15 U.S.C. § 1114(1). If a person seeks to register a mark that is likely to cause confusion with an existing registered mark, the owner of the existing registered mark may oppose the registration of the new mark before the TTAB. 15 U.S.C. § 1052(d); see id. §§ 1063, 1067(a).

In B&B Hardware, Inc. v. Hargis Industries, Inc., 134 S. Ct. 2899 (US 2014), the United States Supreme Court was asked to decide whether the TTAB’s determination of a likelihood of confusion precludes a trademark litigant from re-litigating that issue in a federal court infringement action involving a likelihood of confusion element.

Plaintiff B&B Hardware Inc. (“B&B”) produced industrial fasteners for the aerospace industry under the mark SEALTIGHT since 1990. B&B’s SEALTIGHT mark was registered with the PTO in 1993. Subsequently, Hargis Industries, Inc. (“Hargis”) adopted the mark SEALTITE for its self-drilling, self-taping screws for use in the metal-building industry. Hargis applied to register SEALTITE with in 1996, but its application was initially refused due to the existence of B&B’s registration. Hargis then sought to cancel the B&B registration alleging that the B&B mark had been abandoned. However, prior to a final decision by the Board, B&B sued Hargis in U.S. District Court alleging infringement of its registered SEALTIGHT trademark.

A jury in the District Court found in favor of Hargis that there was no likelihood of confusion between the marks. The parties appealed to the Eighth Circuit which affirmed the District Court decision and the issue was ultimately taken by the U.S. Supreme Court.

Reversing the Circuit Court, the Supreme Court remanded the case for further proceedings, holding that a likelihood of confusion determination by the TTAB should have preclusive effect as long as the ordinary elements of issue preclusion are met and the usages of the marks are materially the same.

“Issue preclusion” or “res judicata” is an important concept for both fairness and judicial economy. Essentially, litigants should not get two bites at the same apple. In the past, the TTAB would suspend its proceedings if a case was simultaneously pending in District Court.

The key take away for trademark practitioners is strategic since trademark oppositions and cancellations do not result in a damages award or determination of infringement. Yet, its decisions can now be used as the basis for finding infringement in District Court where an adverse decision may have far-reaching effects.